COST-AWARE SECURE ROUTING (CASER) PROTOCOL DESIGN FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Lifetime optimization and security are two conflicting design issues for multi-hop wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with non-replenishable energy resources. In this paper, we first propose a novel secure and efficient Cost-Aware SEcure Routing (CASER) protocol to address these two conflicting issues through two adjustable parameters: energy balance control (EBC) and probabilistic based random walking. We then discover that the energy consumption is severely disproportional to the uniform energy deployment for the given network topology, which greatly reduces the lifetime of the sensor networks. We propose an efficient non-uniform energy deployment strategy to optimize the lifetime and message delivery ratio under the same energy resource and security requirement. We also provide a quantitative security analysis on the proposed routing protocol.
Our theoretical analysis and java simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CASER protocol can provide an excellent tradeoff between routing efficiency and energy balance, and can significantly extend the lifetime of the sensor networks in all scenarios. For the non-uniform energy deployment, our analysis shows that we can increase the lifetime and the total number of messages that can be delivered by more than four times under the same assumption. We also demonstrate that the proposed CASER protocol can achieve a high message delivery ratio while preventing routing traceback attacks.
The recent technological advances make wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technically and economically feasible to be widely used in both military and civilian applications, such as monitoring of ambient conditions related to the environment, precious species and critical infrastructures. A key feature of such networks is that each network consists of a large number of untethered and unattended sensor nodes. These nodes often have very limited and non-replenishable energy resources, which makes energy an important design issue for these networks. Routing is another very challenging design issue for WSNs. A properly designed routing protocol should not only ensure high message delivery ratio and low energy consumption for message delivery, but also balance the entire sensor network energy consumption, and thereby extend the sensor network lifetime.
WSNs rely on wireless communications, which is by nature a broadcast medium. It is more vulnerable to security attacks than its wired counterpart due to lack of a physical boundary. In particular, in the wireless sensor domain, anybody with an appropriate wireless receiver can monitor and intercept the sensor network communications. The adversaries may use expensive radio transceivers, powerful workstations and interact with the network from a distance since they are not restricted to using sensor network hardware. It is possible for the adversaries to perform jamming and routing traceback attacks. Motivated by the fact that WSNs routing is often geography-based, we propose a geography-based secure and effi- cient Cost-Aware SEcure routing (CASER) protocol for WSNs without relying on flooding.
CASER allows messages to be transmitted using two routing strategies, random walking and deterministic routing, in the same framework. The distribution of these two strategies is determined by the specific security requirements. This scenario is analogous to delivering US Mail through USPS: express mails cost more than regular mails; however, mails can be delivered faster. The protocol also provides a secure message delivery option to maximize the message delivery ratio under adversarial attacks. In addition, we also give quantitative secure analysis on the proposed routing protocol based on the criteria proposed in CASER protocol has two major advantages: (i) It ensures balanced energy consumption of the entire sensor network so that the lifetime of the WSNs can be maximized. (ii) CASER protocol supports multiple routing strategies based on the routing requirements, including fast/slow message delivery and secure message delivery to prevent routing traceback attacks and malicious traffic jamming attacks in WSNs.
Our contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows:
1) We propose a secure and efficient Cost-Aware SEcure Routing (CASER) protocol for WSNs. In this protocol, cost-aware based routing strategies can be applied to address the message delivery requirements.
2) We devise a quantitative scheme to balance the energy consumption so that both the sensor network lifetime and the total number of messages that can be delivered are maximized under the same energy deployment (ED).
3) We develop theoretical formulas to estimate the number of routing hops in CASER under varying routing energy balance control (EBC) and security requirements.
4) We quantitatively analyze security of the proposed routing algorithm.
5) We provide an optimal non-uniform energy deployment (noED) strategy for the given sensor networks based on the energy consumption ratio. Our theoretical and simulation results both show that under the same total energy deployment, we can increase the lifetime and the number of messages that can be delivered more than four times in the non-uniform energy deployment scenario.
QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENT AND DESIGN OF SOURCE-LOCATION PRIVACY SCHEMES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
AUTHOR: Y. Li, J. Ren, and J. Wu
PUBLISH: IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst., vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1302–1311, Jul. 2012.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in many areas for critical infrastructure monitoring and information collection. While confidentiality of the message can be ensured through content encryption, it is much more difficult to adequately address source-location privacy (SLP). For WSNs, SLP service is further complicated by the nature that the sensor nodes generally consist of low-cost and low-power radio devices. Computationally intensive cryptographic algorithms (such as public-key cryptosystems), and large scale broadcasting-based protocols may not be suitable. In this paper, we first propose criteria to quantitatively measure source-location information leakage in routing-based SLP protection schemes for WSNs. Through this model, we identify vulnerabilities of some well-known SLP protection schemes. We then propose a scheme to provide SLP through routing to a randomly selected intermediate node (RSIN) and a network mixing ring (NMR). Our security analysis, based on the proposed criteria, shows that the proposed scheme can provide excellent SLP. The comprehensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is very efficient and can achieve a high message delivery ratio. We believe it can be used in many practical applications.
PROVIDING HOP-BY-HOP AUTHENTICATION AND SOURCE PRIVACY IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
AUTHOR: Y. Li, J. Li, J. Ren, and J. Wu
PUBLISH: IEEE Conf. Comput. Commun. Mini-Conf., Orlando, FL, USA, Mar. 2012, pp. 3071–3075.
Message authentication is one of the most effective ways to thwart unauthorized and corrupted traffic from being forwarded in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). To provide this service, a polynomial-based scheme was recently introduced. However, this scheme and its extensions all have the weakness of a built-in threshold determined by the degree of the polynomial: when the number of messages transmitted is larger than this threshold, the adversary can fully recover the polynomial. In this paper, we propose a scalable authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). While enabling intermediate node authentication, our proposed scheme allows any node to transmit an unlimited number of messages without suffering the threshold problem. In addition, our scheme can also provide message source privacy. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme is more efficient than the polynomial-based approach in terms of communication and computational overhead under comparable security levels while providing message source privacy.
SOURCE-LOCATION PRIVACY THROUGH DYNAMIC ROUTING IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
AUTHOR: Y. Li and J. Ren
PUBLISH: IEEE INFOCOM 2010, San Diego, CA, USA., Mar. 15–19, 2010. pp. 1–9.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to be widely used in many areas for unattended event monitoring. Mainly due to lack of a protected physical boundary, wireless communications are vulnerable to unauthorized interception and detection. Privacy is becoming one of the major issues that jeopardize the successful deployment of wireless sensor networks. While confidentiality of the message can be ensured through content encryption, it is much more difficult to adequately address the source-location privacy. For WSNs, source-location privacy service is further complicated by the fact that the sensor nodes consist of low-cost and low-power radio devices, computationally intensive cryptographic algorithms and large scale broadcasting-based protocols are not suitable for WSNs. In this paper, we propose source-location privacy schemes through routing to randomly selected intermediate node(s) before the message is transmitted to the SINK node. We first describe routing through a single a single randomly selected intermediate node away from the source node. Our analysis shows that this scheme can provide great local source-location privacy. We also present routing through multiple randomly selected intermediate nodes based on angle and quadrant to further improve the global source location privacy. While providing source-location privacy for WSNs, our simulation results also demonstrate that the proposed schemes are very efficient in energy consumption, and have very low transmission latency and high message delivery ratio. Our protocols can be used for many practical applications.
In Geographic and energy aware routing (GEAR), the sink node disseminates requests with geographic attributes to the target region instead of using flooding. Each node forwards messages to its neighboring nodes based on estimated cost and learning cost. Source-location privacy is provided through broadcasting that mixes valid messages with dummy messages. The transmission of dummy messages not only consumes significant amount of sensor energy, but also increases the network collisions and decreases the packet delivery ratio. In phantom routing protocol, each message is routed from the actual source to a phantom source along a designed directed walk through either sector based approach or hop-based approach. The direction/sector information is stored in the header of the message. In this way, the phantom source can be away from the actual source. Unfortunately, once the message is captured on the random walk path, the adversaries are able to get the direction/sector information stored in the header of the message.
- More energy consumption
- Increase the network collision
- Reduce the packet delivery ratio
- Cannot provide the full secure for packets
We propose a secure and efficient Cost Aware Secure Routing (CASER) protocol that can address energy balance and routing security concurrently in WSNs. In CASER routing protocol, each sensor node needs to maintain the energy levels of its immediate adjacent neighboring grids in addition to their relative locations. Using this information, each sensor node can create varying filters based on the expected design tradeoff between security and efficiency. The quantitative security analysis demonstrates the proposed algorithm can protect the source location information from the adversaries. In this project, we will focus on two routing strategies for message forwarding: shortest path message forwarding, and secure message forwarding through random walking to create routing path unpredictability for source privacy and jamming prevention.
- We propose a secure and efficient Cost-Aware SEcure Routing (CASER) protocol for WSNs. In this protocol, cost-aware based routing strategies can be applied to address the message delivery requirements.
- We devise a quantitative scheme to balance the energy consumption so that both the sensor network lifetime and the total number of messages that can be delivered are maximized under the same energy deployment (ED).
- We develop theoretical formulas to estimate the number of routing hops in CASER under varying routing energy balance control (EBC) and security requirements.
- We quantitatively analyze security of the proposed routing algorithm. We provide an optimal non-uniform energy deployment (noED) strategy for the given sensor networks based on the energy consumption ratio.
- Our theoretical and simulation results both show that under the same total energy deployment, we can increase the lifetime and the number of messages that can be delivered more than four times in the non-uniform energy deployment scenario.
- Reduce the energy consumption
- Provide the more secure for packet and also routing
- Increase the message delivery ratio
- Reduce the time delay
HARDWARE & SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:
v Processor – Pentium –IV
- Speed – 1 GHz
- RAM – 256 MB (min)
- Hard Disk – 20 GB
- Floppy Drive – 44 MB
- Key Board – Standard Windows Keyboard
- Mouse – Two or Three Button Mouse
- Monitor – SVGA
- Operating System : Windows XP or Win7
- Front End : JAVA JDK 1.7
- Tools : Netbeans 7
- Document : MS-Office 2007